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dc.contributor.advisorStaudinger, Jeff L.
dc.contributor.authorLichti-Kaiser, Kristin Nicole
dc.date.accessioned2010-05-03T01:23:56Z
dc.date.available2010-05-03T01:23:56Z
dc.date.issued2009-04-23
dc.date.submitted2009
dc.identifier.otherhttp://dissertations.umi.com/ku:10263
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1808/6188
dc.description.abstractLiver-enriched nuclear receptors (NRs) collectively function as metabolic and toxicological `sensors' that mediate liver-specific gene-activation in mammals. NR-mediated gene-environment interaction regulates important steps in the hepatic uptake, metabolism and excretion of glucose, fatty acids, lipoproteins, cholesterol, bile acids, and xenobiotics. While it is well-recognized that ligand-binding is the primary mechanism behind activation of NRs, recent research is revealing that multiple signal transduction pathways modulate NR-function in liver. The interface between specific signal transduction pathways and NRs helps to determine their overall responsiveness to various environmental and physiological stimuli. The pregnane x receptor (PXR, NR1I2) was identified in 1998 as a member of the NR superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. PXR is activated by a broad range of lipophilic compounds in a species-specific manner. The primary function ascribed to PXR is the homeostatic control of steroids, bile acids, and xenobiotics. This function is mediated through PXR's ability to coordinately activate gene expression and regulate the subsequent activity of phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes, as well as several membrane transporter proteins. While PXR likely evolved primarily to protect the liver from toxic assault, its activation also represents the molecular basis for an important class of drug-drug, herb-drug, and food-drug interactions. While ligand binding is the primary mode of PXR activation, several signal transduction pathways interface with the PXR protein to determine its overall responsiveness to environmental stimuli. Multiple signaling pathways modulate the activity of PXR, likely through direct alteration of the phosphorylation status of the receptor and its protein cofactors. Therefore, specific combinations of ligand binding and cell signaling pathways affect PXR-mediated gene activation and determine the overall biological response. This dissertation contributes to the molecular understanding of the regulation of PXR by novel agonists, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling, and phosphorylation. The results presented here were primarily obtained from mouse and tissue culture systems. This dissertation identifies Tian Xian, a traditional Chinese herbal anti-cancer remedy, as a novel PXR activator. This evidence suggests that Tian Xian should be used cautiously by cancer patients taking chemotherapy due to its potential to increase the metabolism of co-administered medications. In addition, data presented here show that activation of PKA signaling modulates PXR activity in a species-specific manner. It is further revealed that PXR exists as phospho-protein in vivo and that the activation of PKA signaling modulates the phospho-threonine status of PXR. Finally, the potential phosphorylation sites within the PXR protein are identified. These phosphorylation sites are characterized, using a phosphomimetic and phospho-deficient site-directed mutagenesis based approach, based on their ability to modulate PXR activity. Taken together, the work presented in this dissertation contributes to understanding the interface between ligands, signal transduction pathways and PXR activity, which is critical for the development of safe and effective therapeutic strategies.
dc.format.extent310 pages
dc.language.isoEN
dc.publisherUniversity of Kansas
dc.rightsThis item is protected by copyright and unless otherwise specified the copyright of this thesis/dissertation is held by the author.
dc.subjectHealth sciences
dc.subjectPharmacology
dc.subjectCell signaling
dc.subjectGene expression
dc.subjectPregnane x receptor
dc.titleRegulation of the Pregnane X Receptor Signaling Pathway
dc.typeDissertation
dc.contributor.cmtememberMuma, Nancy
dc.contributor.cmtememberDobrowsky, Rick T
dc.contributor.cmtememberTimmons, Lisa
dc.contributor.cmtememberCarrasco, Gonzalo A.
dc.thesis.degreeDisciplinePharmacology & Toxicology
dc.thesis.degreeLevelPh.D.
kusw.oastatusna
kusw.oapolicyThis item does not meet KU Open Access policy criteria.
dc.rights.accessrightsopenAccess


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