What should free trade agreements (FTAs) say about gender, sexual orientation, and gender identity? No longer is “nothing” the only answer. The Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for a Trans Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) and the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) now discuss the rights of women and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning, and Other (LGBTQ+) persons. They do so in Articles 23.4 and 23.9, respectively. But, these provisions are soft law.These Articles ought to be strengthened to advance women’s and LGBTQ+ rights. That is, we argue gender, sexual orientation, and gender identity should be effectively addressed through hard law legal structures using hard law language that incorporates empirical insights.
The University of Kansas prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, ethnicity, religion, sex, national origin, age, ancestry, disability, status as a veteran, sexual orientation, marital status, parental status, gender identity, gender expression and genetic information in the University’s programs and activities. The following person has been designated to handle inquiries regarding the non-discrimination policies: Director of the Office of Institutional Opportunity and Access, IOA@ku.edu, 1246 W. Campus Road, Room 153A, Lawrence, KS, 66045, (785)864-6414, 711 TTY.