Rhesus macaque model of chronic opiate dependence and neuro-AIDS: longitudinal assessment of auditory brainstem responses and visual evoked potentials
Marcario, Joanne K.
Samson, Frank K.
Cheney, Paul D.
Scholarly/refereed, author accepted manuscript
© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009
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Our work characterizes the effects of opiate (morphine) dependence on auditory brainstem and visual evoked responses in a rhesus macaque model of neuro-AIDS utilizing a chronic continuous drug delivery paradigm. The goal of this study was to clarify whether morphine is protective, or if it exacerbates simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) related systemic and neurological disease. Our model employs a macrophage tropic CD4/CCR5 co-receptor virus, SIVmac239 (R71/E17), which crosses the blood brain barrier shortly after inoculation and closely mimics the natural disease course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The cohort was divided into 3 groups: morphine only, SIV only, and SIV + morphine. Evoked potential (EP) abnormalities in sub-clinically infected macaques were evident as early as eight weeks post-inoculation. Prolongations in EP latencies were observed in SIV-infected macaques across all modalities. Animals with the highest CSF viral loads and clinical disease showed more abnormalities than those with sub-clinical disease, confirming our previous work (Raymond et al, 1998, 1999, 2000). Although some differences were observed in auditory and visual evoked potentials in morphine treated compared to untreated SIV-infected animals, the effects were relatively small and not consistent across evoked potential type. However, morphine treated animals with subclinical disease had a clear tendency toward higher virus loads in peripheral and CNS tissues (Marcario et al., 2008) suggesting that if had been possible to follow all animals to end-stage disease, a clearer pattern of evoked potential abnormality might have emerged.
Riazi, M., Marcario, J. K., Samson, F. K., Kenjale, H., Adany, I., Staggs, V., … Cheney, P. D. (2009). Rhesus macaque model of chronic opiate dependence and neuro-AIDS: longitudinal assessment of auditory brainstem responses and visual evoked potentials. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology : The Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology, 4(2), 260–275. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11481-009-9149-3
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