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dc.contributor.authorLouizos, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorYanez, Jaime A.
dc.contributor.authorForrest, M. Laird
dc.contributor.authorDavies, Neal M.
dc.identifier.citationLouizos, Christopher, Jaime A. Yanez, Laird Forrest, and Neal M. Davies. "Understanding the Hysteresis Loop Conundrum in Pharmacokinetic / Pharmacodynamic Relationships." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 17.1 (2014): 34-91. Web.en_US
dc.descriptionThis is the published version. Copyright 2014 Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciencesen_US
dc.description.abstractHysteresis loops are phenomena that sometimes are encountered in the analysis of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships spanning from pre-clinical to clinical studies. When hysteresis occurs it provides insight into the complexity of drug action and disposition that can be encountered. Hysteresis loops suggest that the relationship between drug concentration and the effect being measured is not a simple direct relationship, but may have an inherent time delay and disequilibrium, which may be the result of metabolites, the consequence of changes in pharmacodynamics or the use of a non-specific assay or may involve an indirect relationship. Counter-clockwise hysteresis has been generally defined as the process in which effect can increase with time for a given drug concentration, while in the case of clockwise hysteresis the measured effect decreases with time for a given drug concentration. Hysteresis loops can occur as a consequence of a number of different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms including tolerance, distributional delay, feedback regulation, input and output rate changes, agonistic or antagonistic active metabolites, uptake into active site, slow receptor kinetics, delayed or modified activity, time-dependent protein binding and the use of racemic drugs among other factors. In this review, each of these various causes of hysteresis loops are discussed, with incorporation of relevant examples of drugs demonstrating these relationships for illustrative purposes. Furthermore, the effect that pharmaceutical formulation has on the occurrence and potential change in direction of the hysteresis loop, and the major pharmacokinetic / pharmacodynamic modeling approaches utilized to collapse and model hysteresis are detailed.en_US
dc.publisherCanadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciencesen_US
dc.titleUnderstanding the Hysteresis Loop Conundrum in Pharmacokinetic / Pharmacodynamic Relationshipsen_US
kusw.kuauthorBortolato, Marco
kusw.kuauthorForrest, M. Laird
kusw.kudepartmentPharmaceutical Chemistryen_US
kusw.oanotesPer SHERPA/RoMEO, 12/4/15: Author's Pre-print: green tick author can archive pre-print (ie pre-refereeing) Author's Post-print: green tick author can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing) Publisher's Version/PDF: green tick author can archive publisher's version/PDF General Conditions:

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kusw.oaversionScholarly/refereed, publisher version
kusw.oapolicyThis item meets KU Open Access policy criteria.

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