Time-sensitive transportation systems have received increasing research attention recently. Examples of time-sensitive networks include those of perishable goods, high-value commodity, and express delivery. Much research has been devoted to optimally locating key facilities such as transportation hubs to minimize transit time. However, there is a lack of research attention to the reliability and vulnerability of time-sensitive transportation networks. Such issues cannot be ignored as facilities can be lost due to reasons such as extreme weather, equipment malfunction, and even intentional attacks. This paper proposes a hub interdiction center (HIC) model for evaluating the vulnerability of time-sensitive hub-and-spoke networks under disruptions. The model identifies the set of hub facilities whose loss will lead to the greatest increase in the worst-case transit time. From a planning perspective, such hubs are critical facilities that should be protected or enhanced by preventive measures. An efficient integer linear programming (ILP) formulation of the new model is developed. Computational experiments on a widely used US air passenger dataset show that losing a small number of hub facilities can double the maximum transit time.
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Lei, T.L. Evaluating the Vulnerability of Time-Sensitive Transportation Networks: A Hub Center Interdiction Problem. Sustainability 2019, 11, 4614. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174614