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dc.contributor.authorAmoudji, Adjovi D.
dc.contributor.authorAhadji-Dabla, Koffi M.
dc.contributor.authorHien, Aristide Sawdetuo
dc.contributor.authorApétogbo, Yawo Georges
dc.contributor.authorYaméogo, Bienvenu
dc.contributor.authorSoma, Diloma Dieudonné
dc.contributor.authorBamogo, Rabila
dc.contributor.authorAtcha-Oubou, Rachid Tinah
dc.contributor.authorDabiré, Roch Kounbobr
dc.contributor.authorKetoh, Guillaume Koffivi
dc.identifier.citationAmoudji, A. D., Ahadji-Dabla, K. M., Hien, A. S., Apétogbo, Y. G., Yaméogo, B., Soma, D. D., Bamogo, R., Atcha-Oubou, R. T., Dabiré, R. K., & Ketoh, G. K. (2019). Insecticide resistance profiles of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Togo and genetic mechanisms involved, during 3-year survey: is there any need for resistance management?. Malaria journal, 18(1), 177.
dc.descriptionThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.en_US
dc.description.abstractBackground Malaria, one of the world’s greatest public health challenges, is an endemic disease with stable transmission in Togo. Combating malaria requires an effective vector control. This study provides temporal data on insecticide resistance status in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) from Togo.

Methods Two to 5 days old females of An. gambiae s.l., originating from three localities (Baguida, Kovié, Kolokopé) were subjected to insecticide-impregnated papers during 3 years (2012, 2013, 2016) as follows: organochlorides (4% DDT), pyrethroids (0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.05% lambdacyhalothrin), carbamates (0.4% bendiocarb and 0.1% propoxur), and organophosphates (5% malathion, 0.4% chlorpyrifos methyl, 1% fenitrothion) following the WHO standard protocol. Dead and surviving mosquitoes were stored separately in Eppendorf tubes containing silica gel for DNA extraction, species identification, and kdr and ace-1 genotyping.

Results Knockdown times (KDT50 and KDT95) were high in An. gambiae s.l. The lowest KDTs were recorded at Baguida in 2013 for deltamethrin (KDT50 = 24.7, CI [22.4–27.12] and KDT95 = 90.78, CI [76.35–113.49]). No KDTs were recorded for DDT and in some instances for permethrin. In general, An. gambiae s.l. was resistant to most of the four classes of insecticides during the survey periods regardless of locality and year, except to chlorpyrifos methyl. In some instances, mosquitoes were fully susceptible to fenitrothion (Kolokopé: 100% and Kovié: 98.05%, CI [95.82–100.26]) and malathion (100% at both Kolokopé and Kovié) in 2013, and malathion only (Kolokopé; 100%) in 2016. Anopheles coluzzii, An. gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis were the three sibling species identified at the three localities with some hybrids at Baguida (2013), and Kovié (2012 and 2016), respectively. Anopheles gambiae was relatively dominant (61.6%). The kdr 1014F allele frequency was > 0.9 in most of the cases, except at Kolokopé (f (1014F) = 0.63, CI [0.55–0.71]) in 2013. The kdr 1014S allele frequency was below 0.02. The highest ace-1 frequencies were identified in An. gambiae at Baguida (2012: 0.52, CI [0.34–0.69] and 2013: 0.66, CI [0.46–0.86]).

Conclusion The resistance status is worrying in Togo and should be considered in future malaria vector resistance management programmes by decision-makers.
dc.description.sponsorshipOrganization for Women in Science for the Developing Worlden_US
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2019.en_US
dc.subjectAnopheles gambiae s.l.en_US
dc.subjectVector controlen_US
dc.titleInsecticide resistance profiles of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Togo and genetic mechanisms involved, during 3-year survey: Is there any need for resistance management?en_US
kusw.kuauthorAhadji-Dabla, Koffi M.
kusw.kudepartmentBiodiversity Instituteen_US
kusw.kudepartmentEcology and Evolutionary Biologyen_US
kusw.oaversionScholarly/refereed, publisher versionen_US
kusw.oapolicyThis item meets KU Open Access policy criteria.en_US

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