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dc.contributor.authorMiller, Lee M.
dc.contributor.authorBrunsell, Nathaniel A.
dc.contributor.authorMechem, David B.
dc.contributor.authorGans, Fabian
dc.contributor.authorMonaghan, Andrew J.
dc.contributor.authorVautard, Robert
dc.contributor.authorKeith, David W.
dc.contributor.authorKleidon, Axel
dc.identifier.citationMiller, L. M., Brunsell, N. A., Mechem, D. B., Gans, F., Monaghan, A. J., Vautard, R., … Kleidon, A. (2015). Two methods for estimating limits to large-scale wind power generation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112(36), 11169–11174. doi:10.1073/pnas.1408251112en_US
dc.description.abstractWind turbines remove kinetic energy from the atmospheric flow, which reduces wind speeds and limits generation rates of large wind farms. These interactions can be approximated using a vertical kinetic energy (VKE) flux method, which predicts that the maximum power generation potential is 26% of the instantaneous downward transport of kinetic energy using the preturbine climatology. We compare the energy flux method to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional atmospheric model equipped with a wind turbine parameterization over a 105 km2 region in the central United States. The WRF simulations yield a maximum generation of 1.1 We⋅m−2, whereas the VKE method predicts the time series while underestimating the maximum generation rate by about 50%. Because VKE derives the generation limit from the preturbine climatology, potential changes in the vertical kinetic energy flux from the free atmosphere are not considered. Such changes are important at night when WRF estimates are about twice the VKE value because wind turbines interact with the decoupled nocturnal low-level jet in this region. Daytime estimates agree better to 20% because the wind turbines induce comparatively small changes to the downward kinetic energy flux. This combination of downward transport limits and wind speed reductions explains why large-scale wind power generation in windy regions is limited to about 1 We⋅m−2, with VKE capturing this combination in a comparatively simple way.en_US
dc.publisherNational Academy of Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectgeneration limitsen_US
dc.subjectturbine–atmosphere interactionsen_US
dc.subjectwind resourceen_US
dc.subjectkinetic energy fluxen_US
dc.subjectextraction limitsen_US
dc.titleTwo methods for estimating limits to large-scale wind power generationen_US
kusw.kuauthorBrunsell, Nathaniel A.
kusw.kudepartmentGeography and Atmospheric Scienceen_US
kusw.oaversionScholarly/refereed, publisher versionen_US
kusw.oapolicyThis item meets KU Open Access policy criteria.en_US

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