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dc.contributor.authorRoss, Joanne
dc.contributor.authorTeesson, Maree
dc.contributor.authorLejuez, Carl W.
dc.contributor.authorMills, Katherine
dc.contributor.authorKaye, Sharlene
dc.contributor.authorBrady, Kathleen
dc.contributor.authorDore, Glenys
dc.contributor.authorPrior, Katrina
dc.contributor.authorLarkin, Xanthe
dc.contributor.authorCassar, Joanne
dc.contributor.authorEwer, Philippa
dc.contributor.authorMemedovic, Sonja
dc.contributor.authorKihas, Ivana
dc.contributor.authorMasters, Sarah Louise
dc.identifier.citationRoss, Joanne, Maree Teesson, Carl Lejuez, Katherine Mills, Sharlene Kaye, Kathleen Brady, Glenys Dore, Katrina Prior, Xanthe Larkin, Joanne Cassar, Philippa Ewer, Sonja Memedovic, Ivana Kihas, and Sarah Louise Masters. "The Efficacy of Behavioural Activation Treatment for Co-occurring Depression and Substance Use Disorder (the Activate Study): A Randomized Controlled Trial." BMC Psychiatry 16.1 (2016): n. pag. Web.en_US

Epidemiological studies suggest that compared with the general population, mood disorders are up to 4.7 times more prevalent in substance dependent samples. Comorbid substance use disorder (SUD) and depression has been associated with a more severe and protracted illness course and poorer treatment outcomes. Despite this, the development and assessment of behavioural interventions for treating depression among individuals with SUDs have received little empirical attention. Behavioural Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD-R) is an empirically supported treatment for depression that has shown some efficacy among substance users. This paper describes the study protocol of a parallel, single blind, randomised controlled trial to determine the efficacy and feasibility of a modified version of the BATD-R (Activate) in reducing symptoms of depression and substance dependence among individuals in residential rehabilitation (RR) and opioid substitution therapy (OST).


A sample of approximately 200 individuals with depressive symptomatology in treatment for SUD will be recruited from RR and OST services in New South Wales, Australia. Dynamic random allocation following minimisation methodology will be used to assign participants to one of two groups. The control group will receive treatment as usual (TAU), which will be the model of care provided in accordance with standard practice at participating RR and OST services. The intervention group will receive Activate, comprising 10 individual 60-min therapy sessions with a psychologist employed on the research team, in addition to TAU. Data collection will occur at baseline (pre-intervention), and 3-months and 12-months post baseline.


The association between depression and substance dependence has been well documented, yet practical and effective treatments are scarce. The findings of the present study will contribute significantly to understanding the types of programs that are effective in treating this comorbidity.

Trial registration

This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials registry, ACTRN12613000876796. Registered on 7 August, 2013.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12888-016-0943-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
dc.publisherBioMed Centralen_US
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s). 2016 Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.en_US
dc.subjectBehavioural activationen_US
dc.subjectSubstance use disorderen_US
dc.subjectRandomised controlled trialen_US
dc.titleThe efficacy of behavioural activation treatment for co-occurring depression and substance use disorder (the activate study): a randomized controlled trialen_US
kusw.kuauthorLejuez, Carl
kusw.oaversionScholarly/refereed, publisher versionen_US
kusw.oapolicyThis item meets KU Open Access policy criteria.en_US

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