Novel Daptomycin Combinations against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Model of Simulated Endocardial Vegetations
Steed, Molly E.
Rybak, Michael J.
The American Society for Microbiology
Scholarly/refereed, publisher version
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Reduced susceptibility to daptomycin has been reported in patients with infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although infections with daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DNS) MRSA are infrequent, optimal therapy of these strains has not been determined. We investigated the killing effects of novel antibiotic combinations with daptomycin (DAP) against two clinical DNS MRSA isolates (SA-684 and R6003) in a 72-h in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model with simulated endocardial vegetations (SEV). Simulated regimens included DAP at 6 mg/kg every 24 h (q24h) alone or in combination with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) at 160/800 mg q12h, linezolid (LIN) at 600 mg q12h, cefepime (CEF) at 2 g q12h, and nafcillin (NAF) at 4 g q4h. Bactericidal activity was defined as a ≥3-log10 CFU/g kill. Differences in CFU/g were evaluated between 4 and 72 h by analysis of variance with the Bonferroni post hoc test. DAP MICs were 4 and 2 mg/liter for SA-684 and R6003, respectively. In the PK/PD model, DAP alone was slowly bactericidal, achieving a 3-log10 kill at 24 and 50 h for SA-684 and R6003, respectively. Against SA-684, DAP plus TMP/SMX, CEF, LIN, or NAF was bactericidal at 4, 4, 8, and 8 h, respectively, and maintained this activity for the 72-h study duration. DAP plus TMP/SMX or CEF exhibited superior killing than DAP alone against SA-684 between 4 and 72 h, and overall this was significant (P < 0.05). Against R6003, DAP plus TMP/SMX was bactericidal (8 h) and superior to DAP alone between 8 and 72 h (P < 0.001). The unique combination of DAP plus TMP/SMX was the most effective and rapidly bactericidal regimen against the two isolates tested and may provide a clinical option to treat DNS S. aureus infections.
Steed, Molly E., Vidaillac Celine and Michael J. Rybak. "Novel Daptomycin Combinations against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Model of Simulated Endocardial Vegetations." Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. December 2010 vol. 54 no. 12 5187-5192 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00536-10
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