Perceptual and production training of intervocalic /d, Q, r/ in American English learners of Spanish
Sereno, Joan A.
Acoustical Society of America
Scholarly/refereed, publisher version
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This study investigates the effectiveness of three high variability training paradigms in training 42 speakers of American English to correctly perceive and produce Spanish intervocalic /d, ɾ, r/. Since Spanish spirantization and English flapping both affect /d/ intervocalically, the acquisition of the /d/-/ɾ/ contrast proves difficult for English learners of Spanish. The acquisition of the trill /r/ is also problematic because it is a new phoneme for English learners and is articulatorily difficult to produce. Past research reported that high-variability perceptual training improves both perception and production [Bradlow et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101, 2299–2310 (1997); Wang et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 1033–1043 (2003)] and that production training improves both as well [Hirata, Comp. Assisted Lang. Learning 17, 357–376 (2004)]. However, trainees were able to listen to stimuli during production training, making it unclear whether production training alone transfers to perception. This study systematically controls both training modalities so they can be directly compared and introduces a third training methodology that includes both perception and production. All three training paradigms proved effective. While perception and production trainees primarily made gains in perception, combination trainees made gains in production. The effectiveness of each training modality depended on the nature of the contrast being trained and the modality of the test.
This is the publisher's version, also available electronically from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4802902.
Herd, W., Jongman, A., and Sereno, J. (2013). "Perceptual and production training of intervocalic /d,ɾ, r/ in American English learners of Spanish." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 133, 4247-4255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4802902.
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