Constraints on Resonant Dark Matter Annihilation
University of Kansas
Physics & Astronomy
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Resonant dark matter annihilation drew much attention in the light of recent measurements of charged cosmic ray fluxes. Interpreting the anomalous signal in the positron fraction as a sign of dark matter annihilation in the galactic halo requires cross sections orders of magnitudes higher than the estimates coming from thermal relic abundance. Resonant dark matter annihilation provides a mechanism to bridge the apparent contradiction between thermal relic abundance and the positron data measured by PAMELA and FERMI satellites. In this thesis, we analyze a class of models which allow for dark matter to annihilate through an s-channel resonance. Our analysis takes into account constraints from thermal relic abundance and the recent measurements of charged lepton cosmic ray fluxes, first separately and then simultaneously. Consistency of resonant dark matter annihilation models with thermal relic abundance as measured by WMAP serves to construct a relationship between the full set of masses, couplings and widths involved. Extensive numerical analysis of the full four dimensional parameter space is summarized by simple analytic approximations. The expressions are robust enough to be generalized to models including additional annihilation channels. We provide a separate treatment of resonant annihilation of dark matter in the galac- tic halo. We find model-independent upper limits on halo dark matter annihilation rates and show that the most efficient annihilation mechanism involves s-channel resonances. Widths that are large compared to the energy spread in the galactic halo are capable of saturating unitarity bounds without much difficulty. Partial wave unitarity prevents the so called Sommerfeld factors from producing large changes in cross sections. In addition, the approximations made in Sommerfeld factors break down in the kinematic regions where large cross section enhancements are often cited. Simultaneous constraints from thermal relic abundance and halo annihilation serve to produce new limits on dark matter masses and couplings. Past considerations of only a part of the resonant annihilation parameter set to motivate large annihilation cross section enhancements in the halo while maintaining correct relic abundance are generally incomplete. Taking into account only the resonance mass and width to show that large cross section enhancements are possible does not in principle guarantee that the enhancement will be achieved. We extend the calculation to include the full resonant parameter set. As a result, we obtain new limits on dark matter masses and couplings.
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