Tetrazole compounds: The effect of structure and pH on Caco-2 cell permeability
Young, Amber M.
Audus, Kenneth L.
Scholarly/refereed, publisher version
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A tetrazole ring is often used in drug discovery as a replacement for the carboxylic acid group. Previous work indicates that compounds containing a tetrazole moiety show asymmetric permeability in Caco-2 cells characteristic of an efflux transporter substrate. The aim of this study is to determine which transporters are responsible for polarization of transport of tetrazole-containing compounds in Caco-2 cells. Results indicate that only select compounds with tetrazole moieties display asymmetric transport. Three compounds (two commercial drug products and one druglike structure) were selected for further studies. Losartan appears to be primarily a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, as previously reported, but MRP inhibitors such as MK-571 and rifampicin also affect the difference between apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical transport. Pemirolast and phenyltetrazole derivative C are sensitive to P-gp inhibition, but transport seems to be mediated by one or more of the MRP family of transporters. Additionally, lowering the pH from 7.4 to 4.0 eliminates the polarization of permeability in Caco-2 cells. These studies indicate that some tetrazole compounds are susceptible to efflux, therefore caution should be used when choosing an appropriate functional group to replace carboxylic acids when synthesizing a drug candidate. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 95:717–725, 2006
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Young, A.M., Audus, K.L., Proudfoot, J., and Yazdanian, M. (2006) Tetrazole compounds: The effect of structure and charge on Caco-2 permeability. J. Pharm. Sci. 95, 717-725. PMID: 16498570 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jps.20526
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