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dc.contributor.advisorSullivan, Debra
dc.contributor.authorGoldsbury, Savannah Joell
dc.description.abstractThe relationship between meal frequency and BMI percentile in school-children by Savannah J. Goldsbury. Dietetics & Nutrition; University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS

Purpose: To identify the relationship between meal frequency and BMI in children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 1,004 children in grades 3-5 (age 7-12 y) from 12 elementary schools within the Kansas City, KS Public School District. Each child completed one testing day of height and weight measurements to determine BMI percentiles (BMI%). Number of eating occasions per day (EO), and total energy intake (EI) were identified using a multiple pass 24-hr diet recall administered by trained nutrition staff. Correlation analyses were performed to determine relationships between BMI%, EO, and EI. BMI% was also examined according to EO categorized as >3, 3 - 4, and ≥5 using ANOVA. Regression analysis was used to determine the best predictors of BMI%. Results: BMI% was 73 ± 27% ; EO was 4 ± 1 (range: 1-8); EI was 1,674± 784 kcals (range: 104-7,273). A lower BMI% was associated with a greater number of EO(r= -0.089; p<0.01). A greater number of EO was also associated with a higher EI(r= 0.543; p<0.001). Main effects of categorized EO were observed for BMI% (p<0.05). Children that had >3 EO had higher BMI% (80± 23%) compared to those who had 3-4 (73± 27; p< 0.01), and those who had >5 (72± 28; p< 0.01). The best fit model for predicting BMI% included EI, gender, and race/ethnicity (R2= 0.27). A higher BMI% was predicted by a lower EI (β= -0.102; p<0.001), being male (β= -0.093; p<0.01), and by being white Hispanic (β= 0.079; p<0.05). Conclusion: Increased EO in combination with increased EI is associated with a lower BMI% in children. Gender and race/ethnicity also play a role in BMI%. The relationship between BMI% and EI may be a result of underreporting, but it is unknown whether this translates to EO. The strong correlation between EI and EO may be masking the influence of EO on BMI%. The results suggest that increasing EO may be a beneficial strategy in combating obesity.
dc.format.extent73 pages
dc.publisherUniversity of Kansas
dc.rightsThis item is protected by copyright and unless otherwise specified the copyright of this thesis/dissertation is held by the author.
dc.subjectHealth sciences
dc.subjectBody mass index
dc.subjectEating occasions
dc.subjectMeal frequency
dc.subjectMeal patterns
dc.titleThe Relationship between Eating Occasions and BMI Percentile in School Children
dc.contributor.cmtememberLeidy, Heather
dc.contributor.cmtememberGibson, Cheryl
dc.thesis.degreeDisciplineDietetics & Nutrition
kusw.oapolicyThis item does not meet KU Open Access policy criteria.

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