Near-surface seismic methods have developed considerably and have been applied much more widely since the 1970s. Improvements in instrumentation, along with cheaper computer power, have greatly affected the capabilities of these methods in recent years. Based on these new capabilities we offer suggestions for future research in and applications for shallow-seismic exploration
methods. We present our recommendations in the context of significant developments in shallow-seismic techniques from the 1920s to the mid-1990s, concentrating on seismic reflection and, to a lesser degree, refraction and surface-wave studies. The recent advent of hardware capable of collecting as well as processing high-resolution, near-surface seismic data opens up new opportunities
for three-component recording and multimode analysis.
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