Both sexes of a new species of sucking louse Hoplopleura janzeni (Phthiraptera: Hoplopleuridae) are described and illustrated from the Central American ichthyomyine swimming mouse Rheomys raptor (Rodentia: Muridae) collected in Costa Rica. The morphology of the new species is compared with that of Hoplopleura exima Johnson, the only other species of sucking louse known to parasitize an ichthyomyine rodent. Hoplopleura janzeni is unique in having posteriorly directed spurs on the first antennal segment, the fore- and midcoxae, and the hind femora of both sexes.
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