Nonobese Male Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Are Vulnerable to Decrease in Plasma Leptin
Swerdlow, Russell H.
Scholarly/refereed, author accepted manuscript
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Background:Metabolic dysfunction links to cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Leptin is an anti-obesity hormone that modulates energy homeostasis and memory function. Although leptin deregulation is implicated in mouse models of AD-like brain pathology, clinical studies have shown inconsistent results regarding an association of leptin with the development of this neurodegenerative disorder. Objective:We investigated the changes of plasma leptin and the correlation of sex-stratified circulating leptin with cognitive performance, AD-related biological markers, and metabolic status in patients with AD and cognitively unimpaired (CU) counterparts. Methods:We used nonobese AD patients and CU controls in a University of Kansas Medical Center (KUMC) cohort. Plasma leptin levels, circulating AD-related molecules and metabolic profiles were examined and analyzed. Results:In contrast to unchanged circulating leptin in females, male patients exhibited decreased plasma leptin levels compared with male CU counterparts. Moreover, plasma leptin showed no correlation with cognitive performance and AD blood biomarkers in patients with either sex. Of note, females but not males demonstrated an association of plasma leptin with body mass index, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and its ratio with total cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion:Our findings suggest that leptin deficiency is associated with nonobese male AD patients, supporting systemic dysmetabolism in the development of this neurodegenerative disorder in certain populations. Although plasma leptin may have limited capacity to reflect disease severity or progression, future mechanistic studies on the regulation of leptin in nonobese patients with AD would deepen our understanding of the sex-related disparity of AD etiopathogenesis.
- Pharmacy Scholarly Works 
Tian, J., Wang, T., Jia, K., Guo, L., Swerdlow, R. H., & Du, H. (2022). Nonobese Male Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Are Vulnerable to Decrease in Plasma Leptin. Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD, 88(3), 1017–1027. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-220447
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