Purpose: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae, which includes Escherichia coli, has emerged as a global health threat. ESBL enzymes including CTX-M, TEM, and SHV are the most detected. Here, a systematic review was developed to assess the status of ESBLs in E. coli considering studies performed in the human, animal, food, and environmental realms in South America.
Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was performed using the PubMed database as a primary source to identify studies containing data on ESBL-producing E. coli in South America. To obtain a comprehensive sample, studies in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were included from 1990 to April 2021. Inclusion such as the reporting of sample origin and diagnostic method and exclusion criteria such as review/letter articles were established to complete data extraction steps.
Results: Amongst 506 articles retrieved, 130 met the inclusion criteria. Brazil reported 65 (50%) of publications, followed by Argentina, and Ecuador with 11.5% each. According to the category of studies, human studies represented the 56%, animals the 20%, environmental the 11%, and food studies the 6%. Interestingly, studies assessing more than one category (ie, interdisciplinary) represented the 7%. Prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli in animal, food, and environmental studies was widely superior compared to human sources. In clinical studies, Brazil presented the greatest diversity in terms of ESBLs, featuring CTX-M, TEM, SHV, TOHO, OXA, and AmpC. CTX-M enzymes were the most frequent variants with 89.4% detections.
Conclusion: The present One Health review of 130 studies conducted over the past 21 years found ESBLs producing E. coli distributed across human, animal, food, and environmental samples across South America. There is a need to increment studies in underrepresented countries and to strengthen multi-sectoral antimicrobial resistance research and surveillance. This information can be used as basis for subsequent implementation of monitoring programs, targeting potential critical points of transmission sources.
Bastidas-Caldes, C., Romero-Alvarez, D., Valdez-Vélez, V., Morales, R. D., Montalvo-Hernández, A., Gomes-Dias, C., & Calvopiña, M. (2022). Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Producing Escherichia coli in South America: A Systematic Review with a One Health Perspective. Infection and drug resistance, 15, 5759–5779. https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S371845