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dc.contributor.authorWappler, Torsten
dc.contributor.authorLabandeira, Conrad C.
dc.contributor.authorEngel, Michael S.
dc.contributor.authorZetter, Reinhard
dc.contributor.authorGrímsson, Friðgeir
dc.identifier.citationWappler, T., Labandeira, C. C., Engel, M. S., Zetter, R., & Grímsson, F. (2015). Specialized and Generalized Pollen-Collection Strategies in an Ancient Bee Lineage. Current biology : CB, 25(23), 3092–3098. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.09.021en_US
dc.descriptionThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International License.en_US
dc.description.abstractIconic examples of insect pollination have emphasized narrowly specialized pollinator mutualisms such as figs and fig wasps [1] and yuccas and yucca moths [2]. However, recent attention by pollination ecologists has focused on the broad spectra of pollinated plants by generalist pollinators such as bees. Bees have great impact for formulating hypotheses regarding specialization versus generalization in pollination mutualisms [3, 4]. We report the pollination biology of six northern European species of an extinct tribe of pollen-basket-bearing apine bees, Electrapini, of early–middle Eocene age, examined from two deposits of 48 and 44 million years in age [5]. These bees exhibit a pattern of generalized, incidental pollen occurring randomly on their heads, thoraces, and abdomens, obtained from diverse, nectar-bearing plants. By contrast, a more restricted suite of pollen was acquired for metatibial pollen baskets (corbiculae) of the same bee taxa from a taxonomically much narrower suite of arborescent, evergreen hosts with uniform flower structure. The stereotyped plant sources of the specialist strategy of pollen collection consisted of pentamerous, radially symmetrical flowers with a conspicuous gynoecium surrounded by prominent nectar reward, organized in structurally similar compound inflorescences. Pollen specialization in bees occurs not for efficient pollination but rather in the corbiculate Electrapini as food for bee larvae (brood) and involves packing corbiculae with moistened pollen that rapidly loses viability with age. This specialist strategy was a well-developed preference by the early Eocene, providing a geochronologic midpoint assessment of bee pollen-collection strategies.en_US
dc.rights© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.titleSpecialized and Generalized Pollen-Collection Strategies in an Ancient Bee Lineageen_US
kusw.kuauthorEngel, Michael S.
kusw.kudepartmentDepartment of Ecology & Evolutionary Biologyen_US
kusw.oaversionScholarly/refereed, author accepted manuscripten_US
kusw.oapolicyThis item meets KU Open Access policy criteria.en_US

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© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as: © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.