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dc.contributor.authorLi, Shengnan
dc.contributor.authorPan, QianQian
dc.contributor.authorFrey, Bruce B.
dc.contributor.editorRodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen
dc.identifier.citationLi, S., Pan, Q., & Frey, B. B. (2018). Development of a Chinese and American scale for measuring spirituality. Cogent Psychology, 5(1), 1501934.
dc.descriptionA grant from the One-University Open Access Fund at the University of Kansas was used to defray the author's publication fees in this Open Access journal. The Open Access Fund, administered by librarians from the KU, KU Law, and KUMC libraries, is made possible by contributions from the offices of KU Provost, KU Vice Chancellor for Research & Graduate Studies, and KUMC Vice Chancellor for Research. For more information about the Open Access Fund, please see
dc.description.abstractA consensus has not been reached on the definition of spirituality. Consequently, it is difficult to understand the concept and to develop scales to assess spirituality. To measure this concept in a non-Western culture is even more difficult. Following sound scale development procedures, the current study endeavors to develop a Spirituality Scale for College Students that could apply to both Chinese and American college students. The scale focuses on three core aspects of spirituality. Data were collected from college students both in China and the U.S. to provide validity and reliability evidence. The results showed that a three-factor model fit the American sample, the Chinese sample, and the entire sample. A measurement invariance analysis revealed that the scale achieved partial measurement invariance. Implications and limitations are also discussed.en_US
dc.publisherCogent OAen_US
dc.rights© 2018 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.

You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. Under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. No additional restrictions You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
dc.subjectscale developmenten_US
dc.subjectcollege studentsen_US
dc.subjectcross-cultural comparisonen_US
dc.subjectstructural equation modelingen_US
dc.titleDevelopment of a Chinese and American scale for measuring spiritualityen_US
kusw.kuauthorLi, Shengnan
kusw.kudepartmentCogent Psychologyen_US
kusw.oaversionScholarly/refereed, publisher versionen_US
kusw.oapolicyThis item meets KU Open Access policy criteria.en_US

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