Anchorage of Headed Reinforcing Bars in Concrete
Ghimire, Krishna P.
University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc.
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Headed reinforcing bars serve as a viable alternative to hooked bars for anchorage in concrete because they provide a more efficient anchorage mechanism and limit congestion of the reinforcement. This study is part of a comprehensive study of the anchorage behavior of the headed bars. The work described in this report includes tests of 32 No. 8 headed bars anchored in simulated column-foundation joints represented by bars anchored in slabs, all but two with reinforcement in the plane of the slab, and six lapped-slplice specimens without confining reinforcement containing No. 6 headed bars and an analysis of these tests along with test results from 23 studies by other researchers of 84 exterior, seven roof-level interior, and seven knee beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. The headed bars in the column-foundation joint specimens had net bearing areas ranging from 4 to 15 times the area of the bar Ab; some of the headed bars contained large obstructions adjacent to the bearing face of the head that exceeded the dimensional limits for HA heads in ASTM A970-16; embedment lengths ranged from 6 to 8.5 in.; reinforcement in a plane perpendicular to the headed bars included combinations of bars placed symmetrically about the headed bar, parallel and close to the long edges of the specimen, bars placed symmetrically about and close to the headed bar in the short direction of the specimen, and bars oriented in both the long and short directions of the specimen; concrete compressive strengths ranged from 4,200 to 8,620 psi; and stresses in the bars at failure ranged from 49,500 to 117,000 psi. The No. 6 headed bars had a net bearing area of 4Ab and a lap length of 12 in. The center-to-center spacing between the spliced bars was 1.67, 2.33, or 3.53 bar diameters db; clear concrete cover to the bars was 2 in.; concrete compressive strengths averaged 6,360 and 10,950 psi; and stresses in the bars at failure ranged from 75,010 to 83,560 psi. For the beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading, headed bar sizes ranged between D12 (No. 4) and D36 (No. 11), net bearing areas ranged from 1.7 to 11.4Ab, and embedment lengths ranged from 8 to 22.6db; concrete compressive strengths ranged from 3,480 to 21,520 psi and steel yield strengths ranged from 53,650 to 149,930 psi; all but four specimens contained hoops, spaced at 2.2 to 6.8db (1.8 to 5.9 in.), as confining reinforcement parallel to the headed bar within the joint region; clear cover and minimum center-to-center spacing between the bars ranged from 1.4 to 9.9db and from 2 to 11.2db, respectively. Experimental anchorage strengths are compared with values based on descriptive equations for anchorage strength and design provisions for development length of headed bars for members with concrete compressive strengths up to 16,000 psi and steel yield strengths up to 120,000 psi that recognize the contribution of confining reinforcement without specifying minimum limits on bar spacing or clear cover. The descriptive equations and design provisions were developed based on tests of simulated beam-column joints under monotonic loading as part of the comprehensive study. The comparisons are used to expand the applicability of the descriptive equations to members subjected to reversed cyclic loading and develop simplified design guidelines allowing for the use of headed reinforcing bars in wide range of reinforced concrete members. Changes in the provisions of ACI 318-14 for the development length of headed bars and in ASTM A970 for head dimension requirements are also proposed. The results of this study show that reinforcement perpendicular to headed bars in columnfoundation joints does not improve the anchorage strength. Headed bars with obstructions exceeding the dimensional limits for HA heads in ASTM A970-16 provide adequate anchorage strength. Headed bars did not provide sufficient anchorage in knee beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. The descriptive equations and proposed design provisions developed based headed bars in beam-column joint specimens tested under monotonic loading, in which the anchorage strength of the headed bar is a function of embedment length, concrete compressive strength, bar spacing, bar diameter, and confining reinforcement within the joint region, are applicable to a wide range of reinforced concrete members, including beam-column joints subjected reversed cyclic loading, lap splices, and column-foundation joints, and allow the minimum clear spacing of 3db between headed bars permitted in joints in special moment frames in accordance with Section 126.96.36.199 of ACI 318-14 to be reduced to 1db, allowing for the use of more closely spaced headed bars. The anchorage strength of the headed bars calculated using anchorage provisions of Chapter 17 of ACI 318-14 with a strength reduction factor of 1.0 provides a very conservative and highly variable estimate of anchorage strength for headed bars compared to the proposed design provisions.
Ghimire, K. P., Darwin, D., and O’Reilly, M., “Anchorage of Headed Reinforcing Bars in Concrete,” SM Report No. 127, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc., Lawrence, KS, January 2018, 278 pp.
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