Fluorogenic tagging of protein 3-nitrotyrosine with 4-(aminomethyl)benzenesulfonate (ABS) in tissues: a useful alternative to immunohistochemistry for fluorescence microscopy imaging of protein nitration
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License 3.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 US), which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Protein tyrosine nitration is a common biomarker of biological aging and diverse pathologies associated with the excessive formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Recently, we suggested a novel fluorogenic derivatization procedure for the detection of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) using benzylamine derivatives to convert specifically protein or peptide bound 3-NT to a highly fluorescent benzoxazole product. In the current study, we applied this procedure to fluorogenic derivatization of protein 3-NT in sections from adult rat cerebellum in order to: (i) test this method in imaging nitrated proteins in fixed brain tissue sections, and (ii) compare the chemical approach to immunohistochemical labeling with anti-3-NT antibodies. Immunofluorescence analysis of cerebellar sections using anti-3-NT antibodies showed differential levels of immunostaining in the molecular, Purkinje, and granule cell layers of the cerebellar cortex; in agreement with previous reports, the Purkinje cells were most highly labeled. Importantly, fluorogenic derivatization reactions of cerebellar proteins with 4-(aminomethyl)benzenesulfonic acid (ABS) and K3Fe(CN)6 at pH 9, following sodium dithionite (SDT) reduction of 3-NT to 3-aminotyrosine (3-AT), showed a very similar pattern of relative intensity of cell labeling and improved resolution when compared with antibody labeling. Our data demonstrate that ABS-derivatization may be either a useful alternative or a complimentary approach to immunolabeling in imaging protein nitration in cells and tissues, including under conditions of dual labeling with antibodies to cell proteins, thus allowing for cellular co-localization of nitrated proteins and any protein of interest.
Sharov, V.s., R. Pal, E.s. Dremina, E.k. Michaelis, and C. Schoneich. "Fluorogenic Tagging of Protein 3-nitrotyrosine with 4-(aminomethyl) benzene Sulfonate in Tissues: A Useful Alternative to Immunohistochemistry for Fluorescence Microscopy Imaging of Protein Nitration." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 53.10 (2012): 1877-885.
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