Abstract It is not known if various technology device differences used for high-stakes assessment result in comparable student performance results. It is important to examine the cognitive processes and motivation of students using various technology devices and item types. The purpose of this study was to compare student performance and explore student motivation when tested using technology-enhanced and multiple-choice items on a computer and a tablet. This study used a mixed-method based research that included concurrent verbal protocols (Think-alouds), a short, self-report questionnaire, and English language arts (ELA) and mathematics assessment scores. Quantitative and qualitative findings suggest that device-type differences in student performance scores are small, and item-type and differences are moderate to large. Many factors affect student performance on high-stakes assessment and more research is needed to further understand how item-type and device-type affect student performance.
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