The influence of 2-hop density on spoken word recognition was investigated. 2-hop density measures the density of connections among the phonological neighbors (i.e., 1-hop neighbors) and phonological neighbors of those neighbors (i.e., 2-hop neighbors) of a target word. In both naming and lexical decision tasks, words with low 2-hop density were recognized more quickly than words with high 2-hop density. Because stimuli were selected such that the number of 1-hop and 2-hop neighbors were matched across both sets of words, the results suggest that spoken word recognition is influenced by the amount of connectivity among distant neighbors of the target word—a result that is not easily accommodated by current models of spoken word recognition. A diffusion of activation framework is proposed to account for the present findings
The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-016-1103-9
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