Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy: Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products-Dependent Triggering of Neuronal Inflammatory and Apoptotic Pathways
Sousa, Mónica Mendes
Yan, Shirley ShiDu
Stern, David M.
Saraiva, Maria João
Society for Neuroscience
Scholarly/refereed, publisher version
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Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with extracellular deposition of mutant transthyretin (TTR) amyloid fibrils, particularly in the peripheral nervous system. We have hypothesized that binding of TTR fibrils to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) on critical cellular targets is associated with a destructive stress response underlying peripheral nerve dysfunction. Analysis of nerve biopsy samples from patients with FAP (n = 16) at different stages of disease (0–3), compared with age-matched controls (n = 4), by semiquantitative immunohistology andin situ hybridization showed increased levels of RAGE, beginning at the earliest stages of the disease (FAP 0;p < 0.02) and especially localized in axons. Upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) (approximately threefold; p< 0.02) and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (∼2.5-fold; p < 0.04) was also observed in a distribution overlapping RAGE expression. Tyrosine nitration and increased activated caspase-3 in axons from FAP patients (p < 0.03) were apparent. Although these data suggest the presence of ongoing neuronal stress, there was no upregulation of neurotrophins (nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3) in FAP nerves. Studies on cultured neuronal-like, Schwann, and endothelial cells incubated with TTR fibrils displayed RAGE-dependent expression of cytokines and iNOS at early times (6 and 12 hr, respectively), followed by later (24 hr) activation of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. We propose that the interaction of TTR fibrils with RAGE may contribute to cellular stress and toxicity in FAP. Furthermore, there is an apparent lack of responsiveness of Schwann cells in FAP nerve to provide neurotrophic factors.
This is the publisher's version, also available electronically from http://www.jneurosci.org/content/21/19/7576.short?sid=590f7ac1-22ec-41bd-88e6-0995b772a4e0
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Sousa, Mónica Mendes et al. (2001). Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy: Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products-Dependent Triggering of Neuronal Inflammatory and Apoptotic Pathways. Journal of Neuroscience 21(19):7576-86.
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