Austrothurgus Gonzalez & Engel, new genus, is described and figured for three species of lithurgine bees (Megachilidae: Lithurginae: Lithurgini) from Australia. Austrothurgus is distinguished from other Lithurginae by the presence of arolia in males (absent in females), first flagellomere long in both sexes, female facial prominence mostly involving the base of clypeus, and male metabasitarsus with distinct, elevated carina on its inner surface. Austrothurgus malgaru Gonzalez, Engel, & Griswold, new species, from Western Australia is also described and figured. A neotype is designated for Lithurgus dentipes Smith and lectotypes for L. atratus Smith, L. cognatus Smith, and L. rubricatus Smith. The following two new combinations are established: A. cognatus (Smith) and A. rubricatus (Smith). An updated key to the genera of Lithurgini as well as diagnoses, illustrations, and a key to the species occurring in Australia are provided. Taxonomic notes and a new lectotype designation for the Indo-Pacific species Megachile (Eutricharaea) rotundipennis Kirby are also appended.
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