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dc.contributor.authorRasmussen, Morten
dc.contributor.authorLi, Yingrui
dc.contributor.authorLindgreen, Stinus
dc.contributor.authorPedersen, Jakob Skou
dc.contributor.authorAlbrechtsen, Anders
dc.contributor.authorMoltke, Ida
dc.contributor.authorMetspalu, Mait
dc.contributor.authorMetspalu, Ene
dc.contributor.authorKivisild, Toomas
dc.contributor.authorGupta, Ramneek
dc.contributor.authorBertalan, Marcelo
dc.contributor.authorNielsen, Kasper
dc.contributor.authorGilbert, M. Thomas P.
dc.contributor.authorWang, Yong
dc.contributor.authorRaghavan, Maanasa
dc.contributor.authorCampos, Paula F.
dc.contributor.authorKamp, Hanne Munkholm
dc.contributor.authorWilson, Andrew S.
dc.contributor.authorGledhill, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorTridico, Silvana
dc.contributor.authorBunce, Michael
dc.contributor.authorLorenzen, Eline D.
dc.contributor.authorBinladen, Jonas
dc.contributor.authorGuo, Xiaosen
dc.contributor.authorZhao, Jing
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Xiuqing
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Hao
dc.contributor.authorLi, Zhuo
dc.contributor.authorChen, Minfeng
dc.contributor.authorOrlando, Ludovic
dc.contributor.authorKristiansen, Karsten
dc.contributor.authorBak, Mads
dc.contributor.authorTommerup, Niels
dc.contributor.authorBendixen, Christian
dc.contributor.authorPierre, Tracey L.
dc.contributor.authorGronnow, Bjarne
dc.contributor.authorMeldgaard, Morten
dc.contributor.authorAndreasen, Claus
dc.contributor.authorFedorova, Sardana A.
dc.contributor.authorOsipova, Ludmila P.
dc.contributor.authorHigham, Thomas F G.
dc.contributor.authorRamsey, Christopher Bronk
dc.contributor.authorHansen, Thomas v. O.
dc.contributor.authorNielsen, Finn C.
dc.contributor.authorCrawford, Michael H.
dc.contributor.authorBrunak, Soren
dc.contributor.authorSicheritz-Ponten, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorVillems, Richard
dc.contributor.authorNielsen, Rasmus
dc.contributor.authorKrogh, Anders
dc.contributor.authorWang, Jun
dc.contributor.authorWillerslev, Eske
dc.identifier.citationRasmussen, Morten, Yingrui Li, Stinus Lindgreen, Jakob Skou Pedersen, Anders Albrechtsen, Ida Moltke, Mait Metspalu, Ene Metspalu, Toomas Kivisild, Ramneek Gupta, Marcelo Bertalan, Kasper Nielsen, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Yong Wang, Maanasa Raghavan, Paula F. Campos, Hanne Munkholm Kamp, Andrew S. Wilson, Andrew Gledhill, Silvana Tridico, Michael Bunce, Eline D. Lorenzen, Jonas Binladen, Xiaosen Guo, Jing Zhao, Xiuqing Zhang, Hao Zhang, Zhuo Li, Minfeng Chen, Ludovic Orlando, Karsten Kristiansen, Mads Bak, Niels Tommerup, Christian Bendixen, Tracey L. Pierre, Bjarne Grønnow, Morten Meldgaard, Claus Andreasen, Sardana A. Fedorova, Ludmila P. Osipova, Thomas F. G. Higham, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Thomas v. O. Hansen, Finn C. Nielsen, Michael H. Crawford, Søren Brunak, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Richard Villems, Rasmus Nielsen, Anders Krogh, Jun Wang, and Eske Willerslev (2010) "Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeop-Eskimo." Nature. Feb 11, 2010; 463(7282): 757–762.
dc.description.abstractWe report here the genome sequence of an ancient human. Obtained from ∼4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair, the genome represents a male individual from the first known culture to settle in Greenland. Sequenced to an average depth of 20×, we recover 79% of the diploid genome, an amount close to the practical limit of current sequencing technologies. We identify 353,151 high-confidence single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 6.8% have not been reported previously. We estimate raw read contamination to be no higher than 0.8%. We use functional SNP assessment to assign possible phenotypic characteristics of the individual that belonged to a culture whose location has yielded only trace human remains. We compare the high-confidence SNPs to those of contemporary populations to find the populations most closely related to the individual. This provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit.
dc.description.sponsorshipCentre for Geogenetics, the Copenhagen branch of the Sino-Danish Genomic Centre and Wilhelm Johannsen Centre for Functional Genome Research were supported by Danish National Research Foundation, the Lundbeck Foundation, and the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation. Center for Biological Sequence Analysis was supported by Villum Kann Rasmussen Fonden; Center for Protein Reseaerch by the Novo Nordisk Foundation. E.W. thanks F. Paulsen for financial support to initiate the project. E.M. thanks Estonian Science Foundation for grant 7858, and R.V. EC DGR for FP7 Ecogene grant 205419 and EU RDF through Centre of Excellence in Genomics grant. J.W. thanks the Shenzhen Municipal Government, the Yantian District local government of Shenzhen, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30725008), Ole Romer grant from the Danish Natural Science Research Council, the Solexa project (272-07-0196), and Danish Strategic Research Council (2106-07-0021). M.Bu. acknowledges the support of the Australian Research Council. A.K., S.L. and H.M.K. were supported by a grant from the Novo Nordisk Foundation and J.S.P. The Danish Council for Independent Research Medical Sciences. M.H.C. thanks the National Science Foundation for support of the Aleutian and Siberian projects through grants NSF OPP-990590 and OPP-0327676. We thank G. Hudjashov, M. Nelis, L. Anton, V. Soo, A. Wesolowska, H.-H. Staerfeldt, K. Rapacki, P. Wad Sackett, J. Li, H. Yu, Y. Huang, H. Zheng, H. Liang and T. Brand for technical help and Biobase for curation of selected phenotypes and Illumina's core facilities in Hayward, California and Chesterford, England. Use of HGMD Professional was licensed through DTV at the Technical University of Denmark.
dc.publisherMacmilan Publishers
dc.rightsThis paper is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share-Alike license, and is freely available to all readers at
dc.titleAncient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo
kusw.kuauthorCrawford, Michael H.
kusw.kudepartmentDepartment of Anthroplogy
kusw.oaversionScholarly/refereed, publisher version
kusw.oapolicyThis item meets KU Open Access policy criteria.

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This paper is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share-Alike license, and is freely available to all readers at
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as: This paper is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share-Alike license, and is freely available to all readers at