This paper examines the extent to which 1st to 2nd generation Koreans in the U.S. have acquired the norms for the distinctive North American English flapping rule. First, quantitative analyses are conducted to test the significance of sociolinguistic variables such as immigrant generation, length of stay in the U.S., age of arrival to the U.S., and sex. Second, stylistic variation in careful and casual speech is examined.Third, categorical flapping in individual words are looked at. Fourth, the results of a subjective reaction test are presented. Native English speakers were asked to identify the race, ethnicity, and nativeness of the speakers. In particular, test results from the perceptions of nativeness are then correlated with the results from the flapping analysis. The rate of word medial /t/ flapping appears to show a concurrent increase with perceptions of speakers' nativeness.
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