What makes some campaigns more effective than others?: An analysis of three mass media PSI HIV/AIDS campaigns in Kenya.
Mabachi, Natabhona Marianne
University of Kansas
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This study included interviews with campaign planners at a major social marketing organization in Kenya and an examination of three comprehensive HIV/AIDS health campaigns produced by the planners. Thematic and qualitative content analysis of these data addressed three research questions: (1) To what extent did the campaign creators consider health behavior change models, socio-cultural, and group identity concerns of their target audiences when designing the health campaigns? (2) To what extent did the campaigns reflect the major principles of campaign design? And (3) to what extent did the themes in the campaigns reflect the socio-cultural and group identity concerns of the target audiences? Results indicated that the planners did not formally consider theory or socio-cultural and group identity concerns that are important in collectivist African societies like Kenya. The campaigns fit the planners' goals of avoiding fear appeals, considering barriers and benefits to behavior change, providing a sense of self-efficacy, and appealing to subjective norms. Several principles of effective campaign design were also identified. However, thematic analysis of the campaigns revealed the presence of cultural beliefs/practices (e.g., gender norms) that can be barriers to behavior change. These results suggest that the campaigns would have benefited from formal attention to structural and cultural factors that may have served as barriers to adoption of the targeted behavior. Accordingly, the discussion focuses on a polymorphic approach to health behavior change theory that would ensure full consideration of these factors. An ecological approach to campaign analysis is outlined as a model for future research on health communication campaigns.